IRREGULAR PLURALS

Nouns of Greek and Latin Origin

Suffix change Pronunciation Example
-is → -es [ıs → i:z] analysis – analyses (анализ; грам. разбор) axis – axes (ось, опора) basis – bases (основание, базис) crisis – crises (кризис) diagnosis – diagnoses (диагноз) hypothesis – hypotheses (гипотеза, предположение) oasis – oases (оазис) synopsis – synopses (конспект, краткий обзор) thesis – theses (тезис, диссертация)
-um → -a [əm → ə] agendum – agenda (повестка дня) bacterium – bacteria ( бактерия) datum – data (данная величина) erratum – errata (опечатка, описка) medium – media (средство, способ) memorandum – memoranda (дип. нота) stratum – strata (пласт, слой)
-ix (-ex) → -ices [ıks → ısi:z] appendix – appendices (добавление, приложение) - appendixes (мед. термин -аппендикс) index – indices (показатель степени; коэффициент) – indexes (алфавитный указатель IRREGULAR PLURALS, каталог)
-a → -ae [ə → i:] formula – formulae (мат. - уравнение) - formulas (формула, формулировка) vertebra – vertebrae or vertebras (позвонок) antenna – antennae (зоол. щупальце, усик) – antennas (теле/радиоантенна)
-us → -i [əs → aı] cactus – cacti or cactuses (кактус) nucleus – nuclei (ядро) radius – radii (радиус) stimulus – stimuli (стимул, побудитель) terminus – termini (конечная станция, вокзал) genius – geniuses (гений) /genii (дух, джин) But: genus – genera (биол. род, вид, сорт)
-on → -a [ən → ə] criterion – criteria (критерий) phenomenon – phenomena (явление)

IRREGULAR PLURALS

For historical reasons certain nouns form their plural differently.

1. Seven nouns form their plurals by changing the root vowel(s):


man - men

woman - women

tooth - teeth

foot – feet

goose - geese

mouse IRREGULAR PLURALS - mice

louse - lice


2. Two nouns have -en to mark the plural:

ox - oxen, child - children.

Note: Brother has two plural forms: brothers and brethren (old-fashioned, a religious term). Let us pray, brethren.

3. Some nouns have the same form in the singular and plural. Here belong:

A) some animal names:

a sheep-sheep


a swine-swine

a deer - deer

a grouse - grouse

a fish - fish

a trout - trout

a salmon - salmon


This sheep looks small. All those sheep are good.

My gold fish has died. There’re so many fish in the river, they splinter the paddles.

But: He studies the fishes of the Atlantic. She had a big collection IRREGULAR PLURALS of minerals, insects and fishes. (different individuals or species of fish).

B) nationality names, ending in -ese, -ss:


a Chinese –the Chinese

a Japanese- the Japanese

a Swiss – the Swiss,

a Portuguese – the Portuguese, etc.


We met a Japanese. The Japanese are clever and creative people.


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Документ IRREGULAR PLURALS